Pamamaraang Ka and Baybayin

Posted on Jan 10, 2017 in A Holistic Approach, resources, talinghaga

Tessie Obusan developed a research method called Pamamaraang Ka illustrated here by baybayin:
(Click for large view)
Explore a Filipino approach that is also an act of decolonization.
In the foreword of the 1994 Pamamaraan: Indigenous Knowledge and Evolving Research Paradigms the editors state that a growing number of Filipino scholars are deeply conscious of the richness of the Philippine culture and are frustrated that much of the distinctive knowledge, oral and tacit knowledge, was not getting into mainstream research.
“There are of course many reasons why this has happened, but perhaps a major one is the dearth of research approaches responsive to the nuance of Philippine culture.”
“For this lack, the Filipino scholars have often failed to gain access to what is rightly their heritage — the katutubong kaalaman ng ating bayan (indigenous knowledge) — a vast storehouse of wisdom and knowledge that resides with the tao.
The basic assumption of the book Pamamaraan is “that a special kind of knowledge and wisdom resides with the tao” and that it exists as a popular culture of Filipino people but that it is a laborious challenge to follow through on this knowledge via purely Western research approaches.
“The pagpapatunay or the validation and objectification of the research experience is a challenging process where the researcher must dig deep into his research knowledge and creativity, to communicate a kaalaman [knowledge] that is only now being given space in the academic discourse. “
Editors Obusan, Enriquez and Enriquez write that the book created a profile of the Filipino researcher or mananaliksik “as someone who is involved with the kapwa, and not just an “objective” bystander, zealously guarding “one’s data” for fear of data contamination. The Filipino mananaliksik appears to be a person who relates to one’s kapwa beyond the concept of “subject”, but rather as a kapwa-Filipino from whom one can understand the katutubong kaalaman ng ating bayan [indigenous knowledge of our people].

Obusan, who is also the curator of Bahay Nakpil-Bautista heritage house museum in Quiapo and the editor of Roots of Filipino Spirituality, recently wrote to me informally:
The concept of hiyang (apt, fitting) methodology in research underlines that each culture is unique, without in any way disregarding logic, global knowledge and heritage, etc. It acknowledges our utang na loob (gratefulness) to those who have documented their experiences in doing research, but I am sure that these very pioneers in the research methods would not stop anybody from approaching research according to a person’s inspiration and insight – for this would be tantamount to going against the very spirit of what is research. Research methods are not sacrosanct. They are not dogmas. If some would regard research consciously or unconsciously in this light – then that is very sad for it would be going back to the Dark Ages.
As I keep on saying – Okay lang the research methods of the West for it is hiyang to them – but to say that therefore it is hiyang for all – medyo hindi ata tama ang ganitong kaisipan. Dahil – The sauce for the gander is not necessarily the sauce for the goose.”


  • The Filipino Spiritual Culture, Reprint Series No. 1 by Dr. Teresita B. Obusan and Angelina Enriquez. 1994. 
  • Pamamaraan: Indigenous Knowledge and Evolving Research Paradigmsedited by Teresita Obusan, Angelina Enriquez and Virgilio G. Enriquez. Asian Center, University of the Philippines (Diliman, Quezon City). 1994.
  • Pakikipagkapwa: The Pamathalaan Approach to Leadership.Ed. by Dr. Teresita B. Obusan. 1998. 
  • Roots of Filipino Spirituality,Ed. by Teresita B. Obusan. 1998. 

1 Comment

  1. Dont you know that The Ancient Chinese symbol the YIN/YANG was originated from Ancient Tagalog Baybayin Script “HA” meaning a symbol of air wave…”Breath of Life”
    this Breath of Life “HAAaa” was the Breath by the Creator to the first Human to give the first life on this planet,…HAAaaaa, the rest is a never ending history to dig in,.dudes…ha

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